• Adjunct Professor, Global Health
  • Professor, Pediatrics - Infectious Diseases
  • Professor, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
  • Adjunct Professor, Medicine - Allergy and Infectious Dis.
  • Member, HIVDR Guidelines Development Group, WHO
  • Invited Member, HIVResNet Working Group 3 (Research & Innovation), WHO
Lisa Frenkel

Pediatric Infectious Diseases Virology Clinic
Seattle Children's
4800 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98105
United States

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Dr. Frenkel's group performs clinical, translational and basic laboratory research on mechanisms of HIV persistence and HIV drug resistance. Past work refuted the concept of transient HIV infection in infants (Science, 1998; PMID9582120); was first to suggest (J Virology 2005, PMID16014925) then later prove that proliferating cells that can produce virions have a major role in sustaining infection despite effective treatment; (J Virol 2013, PMID23175380; Science 2014, PMID25011556). Our finding that HIV is integrated disproportionately into genes that control immune functions, the cell cycle, cancers or pathways controlling T-regulatory cells (J Infect Dis 2017, PMID28520966) has led to current projects investigation the HIV reservoirs effects on cervical cancer, immune tolerance of HIV infants and immune activation. Our group’s HIV drug resistance have defined reservoirs and effects of mutant codons (Clin Infect Dis 2010, PMID20377404; Lancet HIV 2019, in review); and current studies aim to define the mutant codons and the frequencies that lead failure of dolutegravir-based treatments in low-resource settings and develop inexpensive assays to detect and manage resistance.

  • MD (University of Kansas Medical Center)
  • BA (University of Kansas)
Country Affiliations 
  • Spanish
Health Topics 
  • Cervical Cancer
  • HIV Transmission
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • HPV
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Laboratory Strengthening
  • Viruses
DGH Centers, Programs and Initiatives and Affiliated Organizations 

Wagner TA, McLaughlin S, Garg K, Cheung CY, Larsen BB, Styrchak S, Huang HC, Edlefsen PT, Mullins JI, Frenkel LM. 2014. HIV latency. Proliferation of cells with HIV integrated into cancer genes contributes to persistent infection. Science 345(6196):570-573. PMID25011556. PMCID: PMC4230336.

Mullins JI and Frenkel LM. 2017. Clonal Expansion of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Cells and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Persistence During Antiretroviral Therapy. J Infect Dis 215(suppl_3):S119-S127. PMID28520966.

Shafer RW and Frenkel LM. The Clinical Implications of Pretreatment Drug Resistance-A Moving Target. Clin Infect Dis 2019 Jul 2;69(2):215-217.
PMID30321316. (PMCID N/A)

Michael H. Chung, Christine J. McGrath, Ingrid A. Beck, Molly
Levine, Ross S. Milne, Isaac So, Nina Andersen, Sandra Dross,
Robert W. Coombs, Bhavna Chohan, Nelly Yatich, Catherine Kiptinness, Samah R. Sakr, James N. Kiarie, Lisa M. Frenkel. A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating the Management of 1 Pre-Treatment HIV Drug Resistance by Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay. Lancet HIV, in final review. 2019